1. No…not with a fountain pen…

    What constitutes a digital signature? That is the basis for one of the major electoral questions that has “recently” popped up. I say recently with a touch of sarcasm, since the issue was raised pre-election:

    He said that if the BEI would not be required to enter the digital signature, then other sources would also be able to send data to the servers where election results are stored.

    But Comelec spokesperson James Jimenez said the instructions did not mean that there would be no digital signatures in the transmission of the votes.

    Jimenez said the instructions simply removed one step in the transmission process in order to minimize human intervention and further protect the results of the vote.

    The digital signature of the machine is already encoded in the device, he said, and that the digital signature of the BEI is also entered into the machine before the voting.

    Digital signature essential to safeguard automated polls - Inquirer, March 25, 2010

    I could be snarky and ask where all of these candidates were when this story broke back in March, but I am never snarky…or sarcastic. Ever.

    Moving on.

    The relevant laws being cited right now are Republic Act 9369 (amending the next law) and Republic Act 8436. RA 9368 (Sec. 2) laid out what constitutes an Election Return:

    "4. Election returns - a document in electronic and printed form directly produced by the counting or voting machine, showing the date of the election, the province, municipality and the precinct in which it is held and the votes in figures for each candidate in a precinct in areas where AES is utilized;

    And what a certificate of canvass is, and its component parts (Sec. 20):

    "The certificates of canvass transmitted electronically and digitally signed shall be considered as official election results and shall be used as the basis for the proclamation of a winning candidate."

    The ambiguity lies in that RA 9369 does not expressly define what is a digital signature. Thus, as the argument goes, since RA 9369 is amending RA 8436 that law’s reference to a signature holds sway. Sadly, that law does not specify what constitutes a digital signature either. Instead, with regards to the certificates of canvass it just indicates (Sec. 18):

    The printed election returns shall be signed and thumbmarked by the fourth member and COMELEC authorized representative and attested to by the election officer or authorized representative. The Chairman of the Board shall then publicly read and announce the total number of votes obtained by each candidate based on the election returns.

    The Comelec has been insisting that having the PCOS machine digitally sign the election returns on behalf of the BEIs when the BEIs input their codes to send the returns conforms with the law. Congressman Locsin has said not quite, since the E-Commerce Act (RA 8792) specifically states what constitutes an “electronic signature”:

    Section 8. Legal Recognition of Electronic Signatures.- An electronic signature on the electronic document shall be equivalent to the signature of a person on a written document if the signature is an electronic signature and proved by showing that a prescribed procedure, not alterable by the parties interested in the electronic document…

    But, even in RA 8792 there are some grey areas with regards to the digital signatures, namely that as long as it can be proved that the digital signature was made on behalf of someone, following relevant security protocols, the signature can stand.

    For the time being, the ambiguity here will be one of the major wedge issues utilized to discredit, or undermine, the elections. In this instance, I believe a case should be raised to the Supreme Court to allow them to rule on whether the machine generated digital signatures fulfill the letter and spirit of the law. Especially with the House and Senate full speed ahead with their canvassing.


  2. The Script

    While I am trying to keep an open mind with regards to the accusations of voter fraud and “automated cheating”. I continue to find it curious how well coordinated the stories are across the board. I watched last week, earlier today and now Secretary Bello, Governor Padaca and ex-Governor de la Cruz on TV right now. Again, their stories are remarkably similar across the board.

    The script so far:

    1. We are all collecting evidence, we are still putting together the evidence
    2. We were approached by a mystery man who is thinking about coming forward
    3. I am not prepared to reveal who the people are
    4. They replaced the CF cards! (or something to do with the CF cards)
    5. They intercepted the transmissions, or some how changed the transmission
    6. The ballots expanded (this one made me laugh actually)
    7. How do we know where the extra PCOS machines were?
    8. I lost!
    9. My opponent did not campaign, they were laughing at us! But I campaigned and my constituency loves me
    10. The times are different (a serious question actually)
    11. We were the incumbents and have had control of the area for years!
    12. I am not technically proficient, so I cannot explain how it went, but I was cheated!
    13. The surveys were part of the conspiracy!
    14. I was too busy to report the problems; even after the elections. But now I feel like I must come forward and in good conscience report the problems
    15. I am not sourgraping, but….
    16. I am not grandstanding *raises voice* *waves around some sort of election paraphernalia*
    17. I did not take the serious! But obviously my opponents did…
    18. Volunteers and lawyers
    19. NGOs/Comelec/Government/PPRCV/Poll watchers/Media/Surveys and so forth were all involved in the massive conspiracy (at least I’m guessing)

    There are even some similarities between those complaining:

    1. They lost
    2. They were aware of massive irregularities even last year; yet it went unreported even by them
    3. They were incumbents
    4. Often they were members of Lakas-Kampi or the NP (shifted to the NP)

    Honestly, I continue to doubt that the system itself was compromised on a massive scale. Most of their complaints are pre-vote issues. And the systemic issues have been addressed by the Smartmatic and Comelec fairly well. I can’t say I agree with all of the choices they made, but at least they have some sort of explanation.

    If you want to see what I mean about it looking like there was a script, study the speech of Barbers earlier today and compare it to the problems that have been brought up previously. It was practically a hit list of all of the “problems” that have been aired; essentially it collated them and re-presented them. That speech seemed crafted for a specific purpose; especially when he repeatedly ignored Teddy Boy’s questions.

    Teddy Boy had some very good questions for Barbers: Why didn’t you say this in November 2009? Why didn’t you air your issue on May 5? Which is when he said something was wrong.

    Why are they only coming out of the woodwork now, almost two weeks after the election. If the problems were this wide-spread, this apparent and this egregious, wouldn’t there have been some indication? If they were really civil servants shouldn’t they have immediately reported this to the Comelec and if ignored, reported this to the media, supported by credible evidence?

    And that continues to be the problem. None of them have presented credible evidence. Instead we are having to sift through the noise to get to the truth. When credible and verifiable evidence is presented, then I will no longer be skeptical.

    By the way, this is a different issue from the digital signature. I think that needs to be elevated to the SC.


  3. "

    Makati Rep. Teodoro Locsin, chair of the committee, said Sunday the ERs, on which the certificates of canvass (CoCs) are based for proclaiming the next president and vice president, had no digital signatures as defined by the country’s e-Commerce Law.
    The Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (Republic Act No. 8792) gives legal recognition to electronic documents so long as these can be authenticated.

    But Locsin was hopeful that the joint session of the Senate and the House of Representatives, acting as the national board of canvassers for the presidential and vice presidential races, would just “close its eyes” on this “inadvertent mistake” and vote to recognize all the ERs.

    “The oversight is so pervasive, in fact universal, that all the ERs are worthless and it is as if the elections did not take place. I don’t think my peers would allow this to happen. They will choose not to raise any questions and ignore this,” he said.


    Election Returns Flawed - Says Locsin - Inquirer

    Hmmmmm…this sounds like a problem. So, technically the digital signature that the machine imprinted on the ERs does not conform with the law, because it was a not a unique signature assigned to each BEI?

    If I remember correctly, this problem was identified leading up to the elections and was dismissed by the Comelec/Smartmatic and the Oversight Committee.

    The question is, does the unique machine signature ensure enough security, as opposed to a unique BEI signature. The BEI signature does not necessarily mean that the ER was secure either: the BEI could easily hand off that signature to someone else (since usually its some sort of keyed alphanumeric entry). 

    Is this our new hanging chad (reference to the disputed Florida Bush/Gore election)? I think that the SC should rule on whether a machine generated signature vs. a BEI signature fulfills the necessary provision.

    For example, if the signature is not imprinted on the ER until the BEI does whatever the process is, does that technically qualify?


  4. Click for a “Comparison of the Manually Encoded 4th E.R. and the Transmitted Date of the Comelec”

    Scroll down to download PDF (100MB) or click on the fun little slidey things.


  5. Election Fraud? Fraudulent Claims? Good Lord Not Again.

    Sad to say cries of election fraud are growing, took a little bit longer than expected, but I think that was a by-product of the new electoral system. They couldn’t figure out the best way to cast doubt on the elections.

    First, I have no doubt that there were cases of electoral fraud, likely on local levels. That’s pretty damn normal, no matter what type of system is being used. But the accusations are coming now on a national level, the most recent courtesy of Buddy Cunanan.

    The video was shown during a Manila forum by newspaper columnist Buddy Cunanan, who said he got it from a friend whom the witness had approached to tell his story.

    The man had a “crisis of conscience,” Cunanan said, adding he had documentary evidence and wanted the government to conduct an investigation.

    “Both parties are willing to come out in the open in the proper forum,” he said.

    Fraud Tales Grow Taller - Inquirer

    Masked men, the friend of my friend said and cries of “I have evidence” have, again become part of the normal post-election din. My suspicion is most of this stuff is sour-graping. The sad part is, that all of this grand-standing is likely overshadowing and complicating investigating voting fraud.

    There is an old saying “attack the messenger, not the message.” However, in this case I believe that understanding the messenger is important to understanding the context of the message.

    Buddy Cunanan is related to Belinda Olivares-Cunanan (she of the second most vituperative attacks against Noynoy, along with Carmen Pedrosa). The publisher of The Daily Tribune is Ninez Cacho-Olivares, a decidedly pro-Erap, anti-Aquino rag. Sadly, the Daily Tribune has left most of their journalistic integrity by the wayside and were one of the most “hysterical” of “newpapers” during the election. That has not abated since. From today:

    The first ones to be dropped during Cory’s reign were the politicians, then led by Doy Laurel. Next went the so-called yellow group, composed of civil socialites, such as the yellow businessmen who incidentally, came up with pretty corrupt deals. In the end, Cory and her Kamag-Anak Inc. reigned supreme and got away with it, because the yellow media protected her and hardly ever brought these issues to the public, as Cory was their creation, just as Noynoy is today. The yellow media have gone the extent of calling Noynoy the “people’s president.” That’s really over the top.

    He will be a minority president if he is proclaimed and he does not speak for the people, but for the frigging elite. Truth is, Noynoy is a spoiled brat who wants to have his way all the time, which is why he and his supporters, who were Gloria supporters, wanted Corona out of the CJ picture.

    - Empty Threats

    Honestly, that’s some of the more tempered comments she’s had.

    Does she have a point? Of course she does, I happen to agree that Aquino should not be expending political capital by going after Corona. It was signed and agreed upon by the Supreme Court. Do I agree with the decision of the Supreme Court? Not at all. But Aquino, with some political tap-dancing, could use this to gain further favorable political points that he can expend in the future. The appearance of reconciliation now will further bolster his moves to investigate GMA and other shenanigans in the future.

    But back to Buddy Cunanan. This then becomes the problem. The extended family of Buddy have been some of the most rabid supporters of Erap (historically as well with regards to The Daily Tribune), GMA (Belinda Olivares-Cunanan) and Gibo (Travelife, published by his sister, for which he writes). They have all been supremely anti-Aquino in their rhetoric (The Daily Tribue and Belinda were some of the loudest with regards to the whole “mental instability” of Aquino). Taken within context then, Buddy’s secret video, masked man and so forth takes on another aspect.

    I hope that the Congress gets to the bottom of these issues. And if they are found to be valid, steps are taken. What those may be, I am not sure. But I am sure proclaiming the election invalid will be one of them. And if the presidential election is then invalid, all are invalid.

    The needed suspension of disbelief though is quite large to believe that Aquino and the LP had the ground forces necessary to pull off this type of massive fraud. Essentially, the premise is that the LP now (I guess) had even more reach and influence than the combined might of the PMP and the Lakas-Kampi. GMA, Erap, Villar and Gibo were all out-maneuvered by the LP and Aquino? The LP was so good in fact, that they were only able to place Drilon and TG Guingona in the Senate, barely picked up any seats in the House and lost VPship to Binay?

    Or was that, Roxas was backstabbed by Aquino and Aquino made a clandestine deal with Binay running under Erap’s banner. Which means that Binay in turn, either back-stabbed Erap, or Aquino had brokered a deal with Erap through Binay to give him the VPship.

    Again, I am more than positive that there were electoral issues,  and they must be addressed and investigated. My suspicion though, again, is that these are localized issues and do not necessarily reflect some sort of national conspiracy.

    These types of agitations and madly dire proclamations (at the heart appearing to be only extensions of pre-election rhetoric) are doing nothing except further muddying the issues. This type of grandstanding is doing nothing more than laying the groundwork for issues over the next six years (impeachments and so forth).

    If there is evidence, present it. Simple as that. As a matter of fact, I sincerely hope that there is proof. If not, the reputations of those involved are further sullied and all this has done is further a personal agenda of those involved at the expense of national good.

    I for one (no matter my political beliefs) would be concerned about having an illegitimate president. But right now, all they are doing is basically casting baseless aspersions and attempting to weaken the mandate of Aquino, while bolstering the newly national credentials of Erap and his claim on the presidency. Or was it Gibo and his credentials? Where is Villar in all of this? Or, was Aquino in fact, GMA’s secret candidate?

    Maybe at the end of the day, the whole point is simply to weaken the mandate of Aquino. If that is the case, then I pity these people.


  6. A Failure of Election Coverage

    On the whole the elections have been successful. Granted long lines, extreme heat, disorganized voting procedures and rising tides of passion and anger (in the mornings) were experienced in many polling locations. And yes there were some failures in the south (Lanao del Sur). It went as well as can be expected and Monday remains a solid foundation to build on for the next election.

    My current small bone of contention is with the media’s coverage of the vice-presidential election. Namely, their failure to report voting and provincial details of the election.

    In truth, the vice-presidential race still remains uncertain. A gap of 800K votes, with 5-6 million left to be formally counted by the Comelec (they have halted at around 78.8% counter). The PPCRV continues to do a bang-up job and via their twitter has about 89% counted. The uncertainty though of the VP race is not being adequately explained via print or televised media. Drilon is correct when he says that Roxas still has a chance.

    With the automated system and electronic transmission of results and that clunky and frankly unusable website of the Comelec the media should be able to report in detail what areas remain uncounted, how many extant votes are there, and the historical voting trends of those areas. It is not enough to say these are Roxas’s bailiwicks.

    Detail how many votes in these areas went to him in the last Senatorial campaign, show the historical results from the last two elections (1998 and 2004). Was Erap especially strong there? How has the LP traditionally done in the national elections? Explaining the scenarios that would result in a Binay win or a Roxas comeback can be done; I am just not sure if the local media is used to it yet. With 5-6 million votes still extant and primarily coming from Roxas territory; statistically there remains a chance that Roxas can win. But, just saying that does no one any good. The media should be explaining why or how it could happen.

    Fundamental and detailed analysis like this will help head off those accusations of cheating that are already being disseminated.

    The word war started when Dr. Marichi Ramos, a campaigner of Binay in Negros Occidental, admitted on Wednesday that she passed on a text message alleging an attempt to rig the returns in Western Visayas in favor of Roxas due to a “sudden surge” in votes for the senator.

    - Roxas Binay Camps trade barbs - Inquirer

    Knowledge here will help save a lot of national heartache down the road. What we do not want is what Manolo Quezon just predicted:

    As it stands, I don’t see how a messy 2004-style situation can be avoided, with the vice-presidential contest potentially getting bogged down all the way to the Presidential Election Tribunal. It will take maximum statesmanship from both the eventual winner and loser to avoid turning this failure of the system into a festering bone of contention over the next six years.

    It may be that the next 48 hours will tell whether glee will turn into dread.

    The Long View: Glee - Manolo Quezon


  7. Time to stock up on some tissues

    Honor even in defeat - COMMONSENSE By Marichu A. Villanueva | The Philippine Star News Opinion

    They may be vanquished, ran over and turned bloodied by the mean campaign machinery of their rivals. But they kept their honor even as they bowed out from the just concluded presidential race with their heads held up high. 

    *whine whine whine* *whine whine* Boo-fucking-hoo.

    Wait, let me play your the world’s smallest violin. Tell me another sad sob story.

    Noynoy is soooo meeeeaaaaan.

    Of all the nine presidential candidates, Villar got the most of the muckraking and black propaganda in media to text blasts where he was tagged as “Villa-rroyo” or administration-backed candidate. Legarda likewise suffered the brunt of nasty text blasts and other sludge that came out during the 90-day campaign period. Following the lead of Villar, Legarda formally accepted her defeat to Makati Mayor Jejomar Binay who is leading in the partial official results of the vice presidential contest.

    Some of the chief muck-rakers in this campaign were not pro-Aquino, suffice it to say (Pedrosa and Cunanan come to mind). And, other than Senator Gordon who was continually called an asshole, none were attacked as personally as Noynoy (retarded/autistic/mentally deficient/depressed/suicidal).

    Most of the contentions against Villar were  not personal (although there were some and I do not condone them and I am on record as criticizing Esposo), but related to his claims of poverty and wealth accumulation. By running on a platform of anti-poverty and his chief message being, “I was poor look at what I did”, with his roots figuring prominently in his advertisements, it became an issue. Because he made it so.

    And with regards to Legarda, I distinctly remember her saying she’ll never run with Villar. Oops.

    So come on, quite whining. Show the same kind of grace that your candidates did and stop making excuses.


  8. Dear Mr. President-elect,

    Not since pre-Martial Law has an incoming president had the type of mandate that you have coming out of the 2010 elections. This is both a gift and a curse. The Filipino people have given you their trust resoundingly, based on the promises you made on the campaign trail concerning graft and corruption, and the memory of your sanctified parents. And, as you well know since you campaigned on their memory, they are sanctified in national consciousness. This means that you have two legacies to live up to: that of your parents and that of the great heroes of EDSA I (the Filipino people). 

    The Filipino people, through general acclaim, made your parents national heroes. It was the Filipino people who used the death of your father as the catalyst and selected your mother as the torch-bearer of the revolution. They have in turn selected you to be their torch bearer in the war against graft and corruption; as their leader in the fight to reverse the downward spiral the country finds itself in.

    That is your curse; almost unattainable expectations. Unlike what George W. Bush did in 2001 and 2002, you must utilize your popularity positively, to forge consensus and stymie the vested interests and politicos who want to keep the status quo. This gives you the unique opportunity to really push through with proposed reforms. The Filipino people, for now, are on your side and will support you. Hard choices can be made (pork barrel anyone?). When you have the support of the people, almost anything can be achieved. As long as you make us believe that it is in the best interests of the country. Do not squander this gift, as others have in the past. Coming from where we are and where we have been, you can make a difference. We will all support you, because in the end all we want is a better Philippines.

    My request for you then is simple. Temper expectations by giving us clear and concrete goals that wish to achieve in your six years in office. Whether it is legislation that must be passed; corruption metrics that must be halved; education and environmental statistics that must be improved, a six-year (and beyond) development and improvement plan must be crafted and presented to the Filipino people within your first 100 days. 

    Doing things like bringing down a major figure of corruption is well and good, but what will pay dividends for us all is knowing that we are on the path to improvements.

    Many Filipino people put their trust and faith in you. The way to get the rest of us, and cut through the politics and refocus national discourse, will be to lay out a long-term plan that we can all understand and fully support.

    That is my sincerest (and hopefully not futile) hope Mr. President-elect.



    PS: Also, please stymie charter change in advance. Oktnxverymuch.

    PPS: Yes, I know he’s not going to read this and I’m supposed to put it in Facebook; but brevity is the soul of wit. And I’m not especially witty.


    This is a page that can collate thoughtful suggestions you may want to send to the incoming President. Let’s optimize democracy.

    Tell the President. Even if you didn’t vote for him - he won majority of the votes - now that we’re here, let’s at least share information.

    Who knows, democracy just might work.



  9. Move on.

    One of the sadder things that I’ve noticed this campaign season was the vitriolic rhetoric coming from supporters of different candidates. The culture of mutual respect for other’s opinions is gone; scoffing them is unfortunately the norm. And yes, this post is likely going to do nothing to help it, but I hope the nuances of what I am arguing are not lost.

    Everytime I heard someone say “I’m voting for X because I’m smart” or “You’re an idiot you voted for him or you support her” and “And fuck, the country doesn’t deserve my candidate” I cringe a little inside and on the outside. Actually, it’s more like a twitch and a half smile. And I just let it go. I respect their option to have that opinion even if I vehemently disagree with the criteria they are using.

    It’s not even intelligent arguing over the credentials of candidates, it’s ad hominem attacks crouched as support. And it does nothing else but demonstrate the personal prejudices and intellectual bankruptcy of those spouting these attacks. And yes, I do believe that those who attack other voters as being “morons and idiots” are intellectually bankrupt.

    For better or worse, the Filipino people have spoken. And personally I disagree with many of the selections. But I am not going to attack their supporters and hurl little mini-diatribes and throw temper tantrums denouncing Filipinos as uneducated and undeserving of good governance. It does nothing to help this country. The result is people usually end up becoming more intractable in their support; no longer even able to listen to alternative viewpoints. And telling people to vote for something because they’re honest or successful or smart does nothing for election discourse either. If you could not quantify your support for a candidate in terms other than thematic generalities, then frankly you really were not an informed or responsible voter.

    Remember, each candidate was supported and voted for by intelligent and well-informed voters. You and your candidate did not have a monopoly on that (whatever you may erroneously think). Respect other’s choices. Just as I will respect yours.

    If you don’t like who the Filipinos voted for, then I recommend you buck up and become more active in education programs, politics and community building. Don’t fucking whine about it then and get all butt hurt cuz your candidate(s) lost. Do something about it for the next election if you feel that strongly about it right now. Those who bitch and moan and then do nothing are as much a problem in this country as the politicians we have in office. If you think the general population is misguided, then volunteer and help support education programs to introduce more policy and issues based discourse for 2013 and 2016.

    Educate yourself on what you can do to help the country and go from there. Casting your vote and saying “Look at me I did my duty! Pat myself on the back and bitch at everyone who voted for someone else because they’re retarded!” is a cop-out.

    What I do have a serious problem with, and I will not let go, are those who become demeaning and frankly insulting. Spewing hatespeak, like what I’ve been seeing and hearing lately, just demonstrates to me that you weren’t actually supporting your candidate’s programs and policies; you were just falling victim to the cult-of-personality; unable to separate policies and platforms from charismatic allegiance.

    For the most part, it seems we have our new government; as flawed as I think it is, I will give it my support. Because it’s my government and the plurality of the majority of my countrymen voted them into office. The only way we are going to begin the process of fixing this country is through collective action and social responsibility from all parties involved (government and civil society). It ain’t perfect, but it’s what we got and its what we need to work with. If the government starts failing again in its duties, that’s another matter altogether. But, we have to give this a chance to succeed.

    However, this is the issue that I have the most problem with and what I am most disgusted by:

    If you’re going to get your panties all twisted up in a bunch and wash your hands of the country for the next six years and just sit on your self-imagined moral and intellectual pedestal doing nothing other than hurling attacks and unsubstantiated critiques, I really have nothing to say to you. You are not acting like a patriot or a citizen of this country, just someone driven by self-interest and the need to see your chosen savior win. Villar and other candidates have expressed their support of the new incoming government. Their supporters should be able to do the same.

    Wait. On second thought, I do have something to say. If the case is you do not want to become proactive, prefer to just insult and demean others choices and any opportunities for growth in this country (because your precious candidate did not win), and you just don’t give a damn anymore, simply: Fuck you.


  10. Camelot

    I’ve been thinking of writing something longer and more incisive on the subject of the themes of this election. But, for now Binay’s rise to prominence is a perfect vehicle to touch on one of themes I noticed. Namely, Camelot as a campaign.

    The dominant theme of this election was Camelot: hope, change and goodness. Noynoy was able to sell that message quite effectively. Genetics and borrowed aura played a huge part in it, but that does not necessarily explain his dominant victory; or the second place finish of Erap.

    Noynoy and his campaign crafted a campaign message grounded on hope and built on a response to the collapse of the Philippines over the last 10 years. Erap as well was able to effectively campaign on this premise. EDSA II has become a regret, and Erap (compared to GMA) has begun smelling of roses. While he did not have the traction to overtake the message of Aquino, his themes of pro-poverty and anti-GMA resonated. Not only that, but part of the collapse of Villar can be traced to Erap becoming more prominent; and people remembering the role Villar played in Erap’s downfall.

    Noynoy and Erap sold, in varying degrees, Camelot to the people. Binay, who has always been identified with Cory Aquino and being a vehement critic of GMA, is the Mayor of Makati. For many Filipinos (and I say this with just a touch of irony) Makati and it’s Golden Ghettos is as close to Camelot as the Philippines has. It is difficult to counter the physical reality of wealth and achievement, with the relatively ephemeral achievements of successful economic policies.

    Binay sold the Dream of Makati; and he had the apparent credentials to back it up. Namely, many of his pro-poor programs such as the Senior Citizen’s card, an innovation that began in Makati. Roxas, while having much more impressive credentials vis-a-vis job creation and encouraging foreign investment (the Father of Outsourcing and PEZA), could not sell that as an tangible vision.

    In the end, this election (like 1953 and 1986) was the story of moral and collective calls to action in response to the current administration. - with the vision of a Philippine Camelot as the achievable dream for all.

    For Noynoy, Camelot came in the form of honesty, integrity and continuing the work of his sanctified parents - the two who became the figureheads in the movements to tear-down a corrupt dictator. While Roxas would have been the perfect candidate to work reforms in the Philippines, he did not come with the built-in resonance that Binay possesses. For Binay, his connection to Erap (and Erap’s newly minted status as bad-but-not-as-bad-as-GMA), his connection to Cory Aquino, the relatively unknown status of his personal wealth and his stature as leading Makati all became contributing factors in his apparent rise to the top of the partial post-election returns.